# Figures

### Validation

To include figures in your thesis you will need to use either the "includegraphics" or the "psfig" commands (the AASTeX "plotone" and "plottwo" will not work). The grad school guidelines have a few instructions for including figures (but mostly they deal with special cases, i.e., oversized figures). On the whole, I would recommend just including all figures for a given chapter at the end of the chapter, one per page, and you should be fine.

Since I am most familiar with the "includegraphics" format, I'll give example of it here:

\begin{figure}
\resizebox{\textwidth}{!}{\includegraphics{figure.eps}}
\caption[short caption for table of figures]{Long Caption to appear
with the figure.  \label{figurelabel} }
\end{figure}


In that example I also include a little trick to resize the figure so that it will fit on the page (that's the "\resizebox{\textwidth}{!}{ }" command). If you want to size the figure to something else, then replace "\textwidth" with whatever size you'd like to use for the width (and it can be a fixed size such as "3in").

Here is an example of a landscape-oriented figure that is rotated and resized to fit on the page with the correct orientation:

\begin{figure}
\resizebox{\textwidth}{!}{\rotatebox{-90}{\includegraphics{figure.eps}}}
\caption[short caption for table of figures]{Long Caption to appear
with the figure.  \label{figurelabel} }
\end{figure}


And just in case you are curious about what exactly the grad school has to say about figures, read the Table and Figures section of the Thesis Guide.

## What does the LaTeX error "Too many unprocessed floats" really mean?

This is an error that I have encountered multiple times, but generally these encounters are so far apart that by the next time I see it, I've forgotten what it actually means. Anyway, when this error happens, latex stops running at that point. The gist of this error is: there are too many "floats" (namely figures or tables) in a row in your document and latex chokes on them. The "quick-and-dirty" fix is to periodically add the command "\clearpage" between figures and/or tables (this will clean out latex's buffer and start a new page in the document). In a thesis, you don't need to worry about figures/tables carrying over from one chapter to the next, you only need to worry about figures/tables within a single chapter at a time (something equivalent to the \clearpage command is issued between each chapter when you use either an \include{} statement to include a new file, or use "\chapter{}" to start a new chapter).

These files were assembled in Fall 2005 by M. Stark (original files written by Stephen G. Simpson, Math Dept., and are available to download from http://cac.psu.edu/etd/howto/tex/index.html). Some of the files in this tared version were modified from the original versions specifically for Astronomy Dept. use, and others were modified to include new Thesis Office requirements (i.e., inclusion of a "Committee Page" in the eTD in place of a "Signature Page", but keeping the "Signature Page" around to be printed, signed, and turned into the Thesis Office to keep on record).